- (Bloc of the Faithful)A movement that promotes the establishment of Jewish settlements in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza as a means of promoting retention of these areas, especially the West Bank. It is an aggressive settlement movement that combines religious fundamentalism and secular Zionism to create a new political force. Its leaders assert a biblically based Jewish claim to Judea and Samaria. Gush Emunim became active after the Six-Day War (1967) in establishing Jewish settlements in the Occupied Territories, but it was not until after the Yom Kippur War (1973) that it organized politically in order to oppose territorial concessions and to promote the extension of Israeli sovereignty over the Occupied Territories.The founding meeting of Gush Emunim took place in 1974 at the Etzion Bloc (Gush Etzion). Among those playing leading roles in the movement's founding were Rabbi Moshe Levinger, the leader of the Kiryat Arba settlers; Hanan Porat, one of the revivers of Jewish settlement in Gush Etzion; Rabbi Haim Druckman, an educator who was one of the leaders of the Bnei Akiva religious youth movement and subsequently became a member of the Knesset; Rabbi Eliezer Waldman; and Rabbi Yohanan Fried.Gush Emunim began as a faction within the National Religious Party (NRP), but because of distrust of the NRP's position concerning the future of Judea and Samaria, the movement left the party and declared its independence. The Gush Emunim members, mostly yeshiva graduates, rabbis, and teachers, launched an information campaign to explain their position. Gush Emunim has since refused to identify with any political party and has gained a unique political status. During the tenure of the government of Yitzhak Rabin from 1974 to 1977, Gush Emunim protested the disengagement agreements with Egypt and Syria, staged demonstrations in Judea and Samaria to emphasize the Jewish attachment to those parts of the land of Israel, and engaged in settlement operations in the Occupied Territories. Gush Emunim's primary commitment is to settlement beyond the 1949 armistice agreement demarcation lines, which had served as the de facto borders between Israel and the Jordanian-annexed WestBank and between Israel and the Egyptian-administered Gaza Strip and Sinai from 1949 to 1967. Gush Emunim has continued to push for settlements in all parts of Eretz Israel.Gush Emunim's spiritual authorities and political leaders were educated in Yeshivat Merkaz Harav, whose founder was Avraham Yitzhak Hacohen Kook, the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of Eretz Israel. Kook believed that the era of redemption for the Jewish people had already begun with the rise of modern Zionism and the growing Zionist enterprise in Palestine. Israel's victory in the Six-Day War transformed the status of Kook's theology. It seemed clear to his students that they were living in the messianic age and believed that redemption might be at hand. Kook's views were expounded by his son, Rabbi Zvi Yehuda Kook, who succeeded him as the head of Yeshivat Merkaz Harav.Gush Emunim has become a highly complex social and institutional system comprised of a settlement organization, regional and municipal councils, and independent economic corporations. Its spiritual leadership is composed of distinguished rabbis and scholars. Though a powerful force in Israeli politics, Gush Emunim never organized itself into a political party that would vie for seats in the Knesset. Increasingly, its interests in this regard were represented by the NRP, which by the 1980s had entered into a close political association with the settler community in the West Bank generally and with the Gush Emunim in particular. Prominent rabbis and members of Gush Emunim were among the most vociferous opponents of Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's unilateral disengagement from the Gaza Strip and parts of the northern West Bank completed in August 2005.
Historical Dictionary of Israel. Bernard Reich David H. Goldberg. Edited by Jon Woronoff..
Look at other dictionaries:
GUSH EMUNIM — ( The Bloc of the Faithful ), a spiritual political movement established for the purpose of implementing its belief that the establishment of the State of Israel constitutes the Beginning of the Redemption which will lead to the ultimate complete … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Gush Emunim — ( he. גוש אמונים, Block [of the] faithful ) was an Israeli political movement. The movement sprang out of the conquests of the Six Day War in 1967, though it was not formally established as an organization until 1974, in the wake of the Yom… … Wikipedia
Gush Emunim — Le Gush Emunim (hébreu : גוש אמונים, Bloc [des] fidèles) est un mouvement politique et messianique israélien créé afin d établir des colonies juives en Cisjordanie (la Judée Samarie biblique). Bien que n étant pas fondé de manière… … Wikipédia en Français
Gush Emunim — Gusch Emunim (hebräisch גוש אמונים; der „Block der Getreuen“) ist eine jüdische außerparlamentarische politisch religiöse Organisation in Israel. Gusch Emunim entstand 1974 unter den Siedlern im Westjordanland als rechte Abspaltung der… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Gush Emunim — Orthodox Jewish religious movement which supports the settling of Judea and Samaria (Israel) … English contemporary dictionary
Gush Emunim Underground — was a terrorist militant organization formed by prominent members of the Israeli political movement Gush Emunim, that existed from 1979 1984.In 1983, three of its members were involved in a retaliation attack following the murder of a yeshivah… … Wikipedia
GUSH ETZYON — (Heb. גוש עציון; Etzyon Bloc), group of 15 settlements in the Judean hills, located between Jerusalem and Hebron. The population of Gush Etzyon was about 17,000 in 2004. In 1947, at the outset of Israel s war of independence , Gush Etzyon… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Etzion Bloc — (Gush Etzion) A group of Jewish settlements in the hills of Judea between Jerusalem and Hebron taken by Jordan during the War of Independence (1948 49). The bloc included Kfar Etzion (the oldest of the settlements, founded in 1943), Massuot… … Historical Dictionary of Israel
ALIYAH AND ABSORPTION — GENERAL SURVEY Introduction Aliyah, ascension or going up, is the coming of Jews as individuals or in groups, from exile or diaspora to live in the Land of Israel. Those who go up for this purpose are known as olim – a term used in the Bible for… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Moshe Levinger — Rabbi Moshe Levinger (Hebrew: משה לוינגר; born 1935) is an Israeli Religious Zionist who since 1967 has been a leading figure in the movement to settle Jews in the territories occupied by Israel during the 1967 Six Day War. He is especially… … Wikipedia